The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on the Physics and Chemistry of Microfluidics continues to present the latest developments on both the fundamental aspects of fluid flow in micro- and nanoscale systems, as well as the application of microfluidic analytical systems to solving real-world problems. With a novel focus on paper microfluidics and clinical diagnostics (both bench-to-bedside and global health), discussions will include platform technologies for global health, novel approaches to passive flow control, challenges in commercialization of microfluidic systems for real-world applications, analytical systems driven by centrifugal force, microscale acoustic cell sorting and next generation sequencing. As microfluidics continues to expand in fundamental understanding and application to more complicated systems, this conference brings together the thought leaders in unique subfields of microfluidic development that will ultimately form the components and substrates of next-generation systems. Amidst the beauty of Tuscany, in-depth discussions probe the veracity of unpublished data presented by leading scientists and engineers pushing the envelope of development in microfluidic systems that advance biology, biomedical science and clinical diagnostics. With participants spanning the spectrum from academia to government and industry, a unique flavor evolves from the interaction of participants with dissimilar backgrounds, but focused on the common goal of facilitating a continued maturation of microfluidic technologies for application in the real world.